生物の哲学 論文選集
The Philosophy of Biology: Anthologies

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M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.


E.Sober ed., Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.


M.Ruse ed.,Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.


E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press,1994.


D.L.Hull and M.Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 



M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.


E.Sober ed., Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.


M.Ruse ed.,Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.


E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press,1994.


D.L.Hull and M.Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.


E.Sober ed., Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.


M.Ruse ed.,Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.


E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press,1994.


D.L.Hull and M.Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.


E.Sober ed., Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.


M.Ruse ed.,Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.


E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press,1994.


D.L.Hull and M.Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.


E.Sober ed., Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.


M.Ruse ed.,Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.


E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press,1994.


D.L.Hull and M.Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.
 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 


 

 

「生物学の哲学」の基本文献については、web 上でいくつか紹介されています。例えば、次をご覧下さい。

Ward E.Jones, Samir Okasha and W.H. Newton-Smith, A Selective Bibliography of the Philosophy of Science, Oxford,1998.

University of Pittsburgh, History and Philosophy of Science Subject Guide: Philosophy of Biology.



ここでは、近年のアンソロジーの内容をご紹介します。それぞれの特殊テーマについては、別頁でご紹介する予定です。

M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.
contents

E.Sober ed., Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.
contents

M.Ruse ed.,Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.
contents

E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.: MIT Press,1994.
contents

D.L.Hull and M.Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.
contents




M.Grene and E.Mendelsohn eds., Topics in the Philosophy of Biology, Dordrecht, 1976.


Part I History

M.Grene,"Aristotle and Modern Biology", Journal of History of Ideas 30, 1972.

E.I.Mendelsohn, "Philosophical Biology versus Experimental Biology", Actes, Tome I, 1968.

S.J.Gould, "D'Arcy Thompson and the Science of Form", New Literary History II, 1971.


Part II Reducibility

K.F.Schaffner, The Watson-Crick Model and Reductionism", British Journal of Philosophy of Science 20, 1969.

M.Polanyi, "Life's Irreducible Structure", Science 160, 1968.


Part III Problems of Explanation in Biology


A. Levels of Organization

C.Grobstein, "Organizational Levels and Explanation", Journal of History of Biology 2, 1969.

H.H.Pattee, "Physical Theories of Biological Co-ordination", Quaterly Review of Biophysics 4, 1971.

W.C.Wimsatt, "Complexity and Organization", Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science 1972, 1974.


B. Function and Teleology

M.Beckner, "Function and Teleology", Journal of History of Biology 2, 1969.

L.Wright, "Function", Philosophical Review 82, 1973.


C. Pluralistic Explanation

S.A.Kauffman, "Articulation of Parts Explanation in Biology and the Rational Search for them", Boston Studies in the Philosophy of Science VIII, 1971.


Part IV Evolution

L.B.Slobodkin, "The Strategy of Evolution", American Scientist 52, 1964.

R.C.Lewontin, "Evolution and the Theory of Games", Journal of Theoretical Biology I, 1961.

F.J.Ayala, "Biology as an Autonomous Science", American Scientist 56, 1968.

R.Munson, "Biological Adaptation", Philosophy of Science 38, 1971.


Part V Species Problem

E.Mayr, "Species Concepts and Definitions", American Association for the Advancement of Science 50, 1957.

V.Pratt, "Biological Classification", British Journal of Philosophy of Science 23, 1972.

D.L.Hull, "Contemporary Systematic Philosophies", Annual Review of Ecological Sytematics I, 1970.







E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1984.
(* also reprinted in 2nd editon,1994).

I. Guiding Ideas in Evolutionary Biology

R.C.Lewontin,"The Structure of Evolutionary Genetics", ch.1 of The Genetic Basis of Evolutionary Change, New York,1974.

* E.Mayr,"Typological versus Population Thinking", from Evolution and the Diversity of Life, 1975.

R.Levins, "The Strategy of Model Building in Population Biology", American Scientists 54,1966.


II. Fitness

S.J.Gould, "Darwin's Untimly Burial", in Ever Since Darwin, New York,1977.
[浦本昌紀・寺田 鴻訳『ダーウィン以来』早川書房,1995.]

* S.K.Mills and J.H.Beatty,"The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness", Philosophy of Science 46,1979.

R.Brandon, "Adaptation and Evolutionary Theory", Studies in the History and Philosophy of Science 9,1978, rep.in his Concepts and Methods in Evolutionary Biology, Cambridge,1996.

M.Williams, "The Logical Status of Natural Selection and Other Evolutionary Controversies", in M.Bunge ed.,The Methodological Unity of Science, Dordrecht,1973.

A.Rosenberg, "The Supervenience of Biological Concepts", Philosophy of Science 45,1978.


III. The Units of Selection

S.J.Gould, "Caring Groups and Selfish Genes", in The Panda's Thumb, New York,1980.
[櫻町翠軒訳『パンダの親指』早川書房,1996.]

R.Dawkins, "Replicator Selection and the Extended Phenotype", Zeitschrift fur Tierpsychol.47,1978.

W.Wimsatt, "Reductionistic Research Strategies and their Biases in the Units of Selection Controversy", in T.Nickles ed., Scientific Discovery, Dordrecht,1980.

E.Sober, "Holism,Individualism,and the Units of Selection", in P.Asquith and R.Giere eds.,PSA 1980,1981.

E.Sober and R.C.Lewontin, "Artifact, Cause, and Genic Selection", Philosophy of Science 49,1982.


IV. Adaptation

R.C.Lewontin, "Adaptation", The Encyclopedia Einaudi, Milan,1980.

* S.J.Gould and R.C.Lewontin,"The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme",Proc.R.Soc.London 205,1978.

G.F.Oster and E.O.Wilson, "A Critique of Optimization Theory in Evolutionary Biology", ch.8 of Caste and Ecology in the Social Instincts, Princeton,1978.

* J.Maynard Smith,"Optimization Theory in Evolution", Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9,1978.


V. Function and Teleology

E.Nagel, "The Structure of Teleological Explanations", from The Structure of Science,1961.

* L.Wright,"Functions", Philosophical Review 82,1973.

C.Boorse, "Wright on Functions", Philosophical Review 85,1976.

* R.Cummins,"Functional Analysis", Journal of Philosophy 72,1975.


VI. The Reduction of mendelian Genetics to Molecular Biology

E.Nagel, "The Standpoint of Organismic Biology", from The Structure of Science,1961.

K.Schaffner, "Reduction in Biology: prospects and Probelms", in R.S.Cohen et al eds., PSA 1974, 1976.

M.Ruse, "Reduction in Genetics", in R.S.Cohen et al eds., PSA 1974, 1976.

D.L.Hull, "Informal Aspects of Theory Reduction", in R.S.Cohen et al eds., PSA 1974, 1976.

W.Wimsatt,"Reductive Explanation: A Functional Account", in R.S.Cohen et al eds., PSA 1974, 1976.

N.Maull,"Unifying Science without Reduction", Stud.Hist.Phil.Sci.9,1977.


VII. The Nature of Species

E.Mayr,"Species Concepts and their Applications", ch.2 of Populations, Species,and Evolution, Cambridge, 1963.

R.R.Sokal and T.J.Crovello, "The Biologocal Species Concept: A Critical Evaluation", American Naturalist 104,1970.

* D.L.Hull,"Contemporary Systematic Philosophies", Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1,1970.

* W.Hennig,"Phylogenetic Systematics", Annual Review of Entomology 10,1965.

* D.L.Hull,"A Matter of Individuality", Philosophy of Science 45,1978.

* E.Mayr,"Biological Classification: Toward a Synthesis of Opposing Methodologies", Science,1981.

J.Felsenstein, "Cases in which Parsimony or Compatibility Methods will be Positively Misleading", Systematic Zoology 27,1978.

* J.Farris,"The Logical Basis of Phylogenetic Analysis",in N.Platnick and V.Funk eds.,Advances in Cladistics,1982.






Michael Ruse ed., Philosophy of Biology, New York,1989, Amherst: Prometheus Books,1998.

Introduction

WHAT IS LIFE ?

Aristotle, The Generation of Animals.(BkII,ch.1,733b23-735a26)
[島崎三郎『動物発生論』「アリストテレス全集9」岩波書店,1969.]

J.B.S.Haldane,"What is Life", from What is Life,London,1949.


EXPLAINING DESIGN

W.Paley, Natural Theology,1802, excerpts.

Ch.Darwin, Origin of Species, extracts from Ch.3 and Ch.4.
[八杉龍一訳『種の起源』岩波書店,1990.]

M.Denton, "Beyond the Reach of Chance", ch.13 of Evolution: A Theory in Crisis,London,1985.

R.Dawkins, "Accumulating Small Change", from The Blind Watchmaker,1986.
[中嶋康裕他訳『ブラインド・ウォッチメイカー』早川書房,1993.]


DARWINISM AND THE TAUTOLOGY PROBLEM

A.G.N.Flew,"The Structure of Darwinism", New Biology 28,1959.

T.Bethell,"Darwin's Mistake", Harper's Magazine,1976.

S.J.Gould, "Darwins's Untimely Burial", Natural History 85,.
[浦本昌紀・寺田 鴻訳『ダーウィン以来』早川書房,1995.]


THE CHALLENGE OF PUNCTUATED EQUILIBRIUM

S.J.Gould, Darwinism and the Expansion of Evolutionary Theory, Science 216,1982.
[「ダーウィニズムと進化論の発展」『科学』vol.52,1982.]

F.J.Ayala,Beyond Darwinism ? The Challenge fo Macroevolution to the Synthetic Theory of Evolution, PSA 1982,1983.


PROBLEMS OF CLASSIFICATION

E.Mayr,"Species Concepts and their Application", ch.2 of Populations,Species,and Evolution.

D.L.Hull,"The Ontological Status of Species as Evolutionary Units", in R.Butts and J.Hintikka eds.,Foundational Problems in the Special Sciences,1977.

A.L.Caplan,"Have Species Become Declasse?", PSA 1980,1980.

M.Ridley, "Principles of Classification", from The Problems of Evolution,1985.


TELEOLOGY: HELP OR HUNDRANCE ?

G.C.Williams, "Adaptation and Natural Selection", from Adaptation and Natural Selection, Princeton,1966.

P.J.Kramer, "Misuse of the Term Strategy", Bioscience 34,1984.

F.J.Ayala, "Teleological Explanations", from Evolution,1977.


MOLECULAR BIOLOGY
K.F.Schaffner, "Chemical Systems and Chemical Evolution: The Philosophy of Molecular Biology", American Scientist 57,1969.

J.Beatty,"The Insights and Oversights of Molecular Genetics: The Place of the Evolutionary Perspective", PSA 1982,1982.


THE RECOMBINANT DNA DEBATE

J.Rifkin, "Creating the Efficient Gene", from Declaration of a Heretic, London,1985.

S.Stich, "The Recombinant DNA Debate", Philosophy and Public Affairs 7,1978.


HUMAN SOCIOBIOLOGY

E.O.Wilson, "Heredity", from Human Nature,1978.
[岸由二訳『人間の本性』思索社,1980]

S.J.Gould, "Sociobiology and the Theory of Natural Selection", in G.W.Barlow and J.Silverberg eds.,Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/ Nurture ? Boulder,1980.

A.L.Caplan, "Say It Just Ain't So: Adaptational Stories and Sociobiological Explanations of Social Behavior", The Philosophical Forum 13,1981-82.


EXTRATERRESTRIALS

R.Bieri, "Huminoids on Other Planets", American Scientist 52,1964.

E.Mayr, "The Probability of Extraterrestrial Intelligent", in E.Regis,Jr. ed.,Extraterrestrials,New York,1985, rep.in Toward a New Philosophy of Biology, Cambridge,Mass.,1988.
[八杉貞雄・新妻昭夫訳「地球外知的生命体の確立」『進化論と生物哲学』東京化学同人,1994 所収.]

EVOLUTION AND ETHICS

W.G.Summer, "The Challenge of Facts", The Challenge of Facts and Other Essays, New Haven,1914.

T.H.Huxley, "Evolution and Ethics", in Collected Essays 9, London,1893.

J.L.Mackie, "The Law of the Jungle: Moral Alternatives and Principles of Evolution", Philosophy 53,206.

M.Ruse and E.O.Wilson, "The Evolution of Ethics", New Scientist 17,1985.
[牧野俊一訳「倫理の進化」『現代思想』vol.20-5,1992.]


GOD AND BIOLOGY

Genesis ch.1,2.

The State of Arkansas, Act 590 of 1981.

M.Ruse, "Creation Science: The Ultimate Fraud", in J.Cherfas ed.,Darwin Up To Date, London,1982.

A.Peacocke,"Welcoming the 'Distinguished Friend': Darwinism and Divinity".


CLONING

P.Hefner,"Cloning as Quintessential Human Act", Insights 9,1997.

R.A.Lindsay, "Taboos without a Clue: Sizing Up Religious Objectins to Cloning", Free Inquiry 17,1997.

Bibiographic Essay





E.Sober ed.,Conceptual Issues in Evolutionary Biology, 2nd edition, Cambridge,Mass.,1994.
(* also reprinted in 1st editon,1984).


I. Fitness

* S.K.Mills and J.H.Beatty,"The Propensity Interpretation of Fitness", Philosophy of Science 46,1979.


II. Function and Teleology

* L.Wright,"Functions", Philosophical Review 82,1973.

* R.Cummins,"Functional Analysis", Journal of Philosophy 72,1975.


III. Adaptationism

* S.J.Gould and R.C.Lewontin,"The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm: A Critique of the Adaptationist Programme",Proc.R.Soc.London 205,1978.

* J.Maynard Smith,"Optimization Theory in Evolution",Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 9,1978.


IV. Units of Selection

G.C.Williams, excerpts from Adaptation and Natural Selection, Princeton,1966.

D.S.Wilson,"Levels of Selection: An Alternative to Individualism in Biology and the Human Science", Social Networks 11,1989.


V. Essentialism and Population Thinking

* E.Mayr,"Typological versus Population Thinking", Evolution and the Diversity of Life, 1975.

E.Sober,"Evolution,Population Thinking, and Essentialism", Philosophy of Science 47,1980, rep.in his From a Biological Point of View, Cambridge,1994.


VI. Species

* D.L.Hull,"A Matter of Individuality", Philosophy of Science 45,1978.

B.D.Mishler and M.J.Donoghue,"Species Concepts: A Case for Pluralism",Systematic Zoology 31,1982.


VII. Systematic Philosophies

R.R.Sokal,"The Continuing Seach for Order", American Naturalist 126,1985.

* W.Hennig,"Phylogenetic Systematics", Annual Review of Entomology 10,1965.

* E.Mayr,"Biological Classification: Toward a Synthesis of Opposing Methodologies", Science 510-516,1981.

* D.L.Hull,"Contemporary Systematic Philosophies", Annual Review of Ecology and Systematics 1,1970.


VIII. Phylogenetic Inference

* J.Farris,"The Logocal Basis of Phylogenetic Analysis",in N.Platnick and V.Funk eds.,Advances in Cladistics,1982.

J.Felsenstein,"The Detection of Phylogeny", in D.Hawksworth ed.,Prospects in Systematics,1988.


IX. Reduction of Mendelian Genetics to Molecular Biology

P.Kitcher,"1953 and All That: A Tale of Two Science", Philosophical Review 93,1984.


C.K.Waters,"Why the Antireductionist Consensus Won't Survive the Case of Classical Mendelian Genetics", PSA 1990


X. Ethics and Sociobiology

M.Ruse and E.O.Wilson,"More Philosophy as Applied Science", Philosophy 61,1986.

P.Kitcher,"Four Ways of 'Biologicizing' Ethics", in K.Bayertz ed.,Evolution and Ethik, 1993.


IX. Cultural Evolution and Evolutionary Epistemology

M.Bradie,"Epistemological from an Evolutionary Point of View",

E.Sober,"Models of Cultural Evolution", P.Griffiths ed., Trees of Life,1991.






David L. Hull and Michael Ruse eds., The Philosophy of Biology, Oxford: Oxford University Press,1998.

David L. Hull and Michael Ruse, Introduction

Part I: Adaptation
M.Ruse, Introduction to Part I

1 Mary Jane West-Eberhard,"Adaptation: Current Usages",in E.F.Keller and E.Lloyd eds.,Keywords in Evolutionary Biology,Cambridge,Mass.,1992.

2 Richard Dawkins,"Universal Darwinism",in D.S.Bedall ed.,Evolution from Molecules to Man,Cambridge,1983.

3 D. C. Dennett, "The Leibnizian Paradigm", from Darwin's Dangerous Idea, New York,1995.
[山口泰司監訳『ダーウィンの危険な思想』青土社,2000.]

4 Stephen Jay Gould and Elisabeth S. Vrba, "Exaptation - A Missing Term in the Science of Form", Paleobiology 8,1982.

5 Elliott Sober,"Six Sayings About Adaptationism",from "Evolution and Optimality: Feathers,Bowling Balls,and the Thesis of Adaptaionism",Philosophical Exchange 26,1996.


Part II: Development
D.L.Hull, Introduction to Part II

6 Ron Amundson,"Two Concepts of Constraint: Adaptationism and the Challenge from Developmental Biology", Philosophy of Science 61,1994.

7 P. E. Griffiths and R. D. Gray,"Developmental Systems and Evolutionary Explanation", Journal of Philosophy 91,1994.


Part III: Units of Selection
D.L.Hull, Introduction to Part III

8 Kim Sterelny and Philip Kitcher,"The Return of the Gene", Journal of Philosophy 85,1988.

9 Robert N. Brandon,"The Levels of Selection: A Hierarchy of Interactors", in H.Pltkin ed.,The Role of Behavior in Evolution, Cambridge,Mass.,1988.

10 Elliott Sober and David Sloan Wilson,"A Critical Review of Philosophical Work on the Units of Selection Problem", Philosophy of Science 61,1994.


Part IV: Function
D.L.Hull, Introduction to Part IV

11 Ron Amundson,"Function Without Purpose: The Uses of Causal Role Function in Evolutionary Biology", Biology and Philosophy 9,1993-94.

12 Philip Kitcher,"Function and Design", Midwest Studies in Philosophy XVIII,1993.

13 Peter Godfrey-Smith,"Functions: Consensus Without Unity", Pacfic Philosophical Quarterly 74,1993.


Part V: Species
D.L.Hull, Introduction to Part V

14 Brent D. Mishler and Robert N. Brandon,"Individuality, Pluralism, and the Phylogenetic Species Concept", Biology and Philosophy 2,1987.

15 Kevin de Queiroz and Michael J. Donoghue,"Phylogenetic Systematics and the Species Problem", Cladistics 4,1988.

16 Marc Ereshefsky,"Eliminative Pluralism", Philosophy of Science 59,1992.


Part VI: Human Nature
M.Ruse, Introduction to Part VI

17 John Maynard Smith,"Science and Myth", Natural History 93,1984.

18 David L. Hull,"On Human Nature", PSA 1986.

19 Evelyn Fox Keller,"Gender and Science: Origin, History, and Politics", OSIRIS 10,1995.

20 Susan Oyama,"Essentialism, Women, and War: Protesting Too Much, Protesting Too Little", in E.Hunter ed.,Genes and Gender, San Francisco,1991.

21 Edward Stein,"Essentialism and Constructionism about Sexual Orientation".


Part VII: Altruism
M.Ruse, Introduction to Part VII

22 Alexander Rosenberg,"Altruism: Theoretical Contexts", in E.F.Keller and E.Lloyd eds.,Keywords in Evolutionary Biology,Cambridge,Mass.,1992.

23 Elliott Sober,"What Is Evolutionary Altruism ?", Canadian Journal of Philosophy suppl.vol.14,1988.

24 David Sloan Wilson,"On the Relationship Between Evolutionary and Psychological Definitions of Altruism and Selfishness", Biology and Philosophy 7,1992.


Part VIII: Human Genome Project
M.Ruse, Introduction to Part VIII

25 Marga Vicedo,"The Human Genome Project: Towards an Analysis of the Empirical, Ethical, and Conceptual Issues Involved", Biology and Philosophy 7,1992.

26 Philip Kitcher,"Who's Afraid of the Human Genome Project?", PSA 1994, 1995.

27 Diane B. Paul,"Is Human Genetics Disguised Eugenics?", in R.F.Weir et al. eds., Genes,Humans,and Self-Knowledge, Iowa,1994.

28 Elisabeth A. Lloyd,"Normality and Variation: The Human Genome Project and the Ideal Human Type", in C.F.Cranor ed., Are Genes Us ? New Brunswick,NJ, 1994.

29 Alexander Rosenberg,"The Human Genome Project: Research Tactics and Economic Strategies", Social Philosophy and Policy 13,1996.


Part IX: Progress
M.Ruse, Introduction to Part IX

30 Robert J. Richards,"The Moral Foundations of the Idea of Evolutionary Progress: Darwin, Spencer, and the Neo-Darwinians", in M.H.Nitecki ed.,Evolutionary Progress, Chicago, 1988.

31 Michael Ruse,"Evolution and Progress", Tree 8, 1993.

32 Daniel W. McShea,"Complexity and Evolution: What Everybody Knows", Biology and Philosophy 6,1991.

33 Stephen Jay Gould,"On Replacing the Idea of Progress with an Operational Notion of Directionality", in M.H.Nitecki ed.,Evolutionary Progress, Chicago, 1988.


Part X: Creationism
M.Ruse, Introduction to Part X

34 Alvin Plantinga,"When Faith and Reason Clash: Evolution and the Bible", Christian Scholar's Review 21,1991.

35 Ernan McMullin,"Evolution and Special Creation", Zygon 28,1993.

36 Alvin Plantinga,"Reply to McMullin", published as "Science: Augustinian or Duhemian ?" Faith and Philosophy 13,1996.

Notes on the Contributors
Further Reading

 

 



 

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